Menu
Log in


EDUCATIONAL blog

<< First  < Prev   1   2   3   4   5   ...   Next >  Last >> 
  • January 22, 2024 12:40 PM | Howard Ratsch (Administrator)

    A Beginner’s Guide to Wreck Diving

    scuba.com

    This article represents the views of the author.  The article has not been fact checked by myself, the Board of Directors or any member of the USA Dive Club.

    Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.

    Wreck diving is a specific type of scuba diving that requires added skill and provides a fulfilling experience for adventure seekers. Most wreck diving is done on shipwrecks, but it’s also common to explore sunken aircraft at the bottom of the sea floor. It’s become so popular among diving enthusiasts that retired ships have purposely been submerged to add to shipwrecks that can easily be accessed by beginners.

    But don’t be fooled—wreck diving with actual shipwrecks from many years ago and at much greater depths can be perilous even for certified scuba divers. Below, we describe the allure of wreck diving, common wrecks that divers explore, the different types of wreck diving, safety accessories that you’ll need to bring, and the potential dangers you need to consider before you embark on your first underwater expedition.

    For the complete article please use the following link.

    A Beginner's Guide to Wreck Diving (scuba.com)

  • December 24, 2023 6:21 AM | Howard Ratsch (Administrator)

    This article represents the views of the author.  The article has not been fact checked by myself, the Board of Directors or any member of the USA Dive Club.

    Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.

    If backmount diving is like space travel (equipment consistency, practicality, and universal acceptance as a gold standard without a legitimate reason), then sidemount must be like surfing (emphasis on individualism, competitiveness, self-proclaimed coolness and, of course, belonging to a “tribe” of few).

    Now, everyone knows that I’m not very objective. I love sidemount to the point that if I cannot dive sidemount, I would often rather not dive at all. After years of pushing the limits with complex technical backmount dives, my first encounter with sidemount ignited a fire within me, reminiscent of that first exhilarating discovery dive. It was as if the underwater realm had unveiled a secret doorway, and all I had to do was step through with a permanent smile on my face, holding my regulator tight, knowing that a world of endless possibilities awaited.

    But, in all seriousness, sidemount is just another diving configuration with (as any other) many pros and some cons. Even if sidemount was born out of logistical challenges related to equipment transportation in British dry caves, it has permeated nearly all diving situations today.

    Nevertheless, sidemount is more complicated to get right than backmount, mostly due to the high personalization that is required to achieve its most important benchmark: a perfect trim. If you are new to sidemount, your journey may be a bit bumpy. But if you are already a devoted sidemount tribe member, you know that the journey truly never ends. Sidemount is organic—it keeps evolving.

    For the complete GUE article, please use the following link.

    The What, Which, and Why of Sidemount - InDepth (gue.com)






  • November 22, 2023 10:25 AM | Howard Ratsch (Administrator)

    DCS What is Undeserved in “Undeserved Decompression Sickness”?

    by Neal W. Pollock, PhD

    This article represents the views of the author.  The article has not been fact checked by myself, the Board of Directors or any member of the USA Dive Club.

    Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.

    Divers still seek comfort in the notion of the “underserved” hit to explain unexpected incidents of decompression sickness. “Hey, my computer said I was fine.” NOT. Here diving physiologist Dr. Neal Pollock exposes the fault in this notion. While decompression algorithms take into account the divers’ profiles, i.e., time and pressure, there are a multitude of factors that can potentially impact divers’ decompressions, as the author explains. Once divers’ reject the escapism that accompanies the ‘undeserved’ label, they can get on with the important business of diving and giving adequate consideration in their deco planning.

    Spoiler Alert: the most undeserved element in the title is the word “undeserved.”

    ·                                

    Describing cases of decompression sickness as “undeserved” generally speaks more from an emotional perspective than a rational one. The driving factors are typically faith in imperfect tools and a desire (conscious or unconscious) to shift responsibility. 

    Decompression algorithms rely almost exclusively on pressure and time data to predict effects. Enticing pictures can be painted on the authority of any algorithm, but the reality is that all rely on limited input to interpret complex situations for people who are not uniform. Modern decompression models are important constructs that can help us to dive safely, but the products are rudimentary from a physiological perspective, without sufficient sophistication to deserve unquestioned trust. 

    The dive profile is almost certainly the most important determinant of gas uptake and elimination, but the truth is that we do not yet have sufficient data to quantify the impact of many of the variables that can influence outcomes (Pollock 2016). Instead, algorithms rely on simple measures and mathematical bracketing with the hope of covering the contributing factors. The problem is not in doing this; the problem is in being surprised when the outcome is not what was expected. 

    For the remainder of this GUE In Depth article use the link below.

    What is Undeserved in "Undeserved Decompression Sickness"? - InDepth (gue.com)

  • October 23, 2023 2:19 PM | Howard Ratsch (Administrator)

    High-Pressure Hoses

    by Francois Burman

    This article represents the views of the author.  The article has not been fact checked by myself, the Board of Directors or any member of the USA Dive Club.

    Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.

    A lurking peril

    PEOPLE WHO HAVE FILLED scuba cylinders, refilled oxygen cylinders, or boosted a gas mix are familiar with using flexible hoses. Some hoses are covered with a durable rubber or thermoplastic jacket, while others appear even sturdier with a braided stainless-steel mesh on the outside. Correctly specified hoses are rated to pressures of up to 6,000 psi (414 bar).

    When we first learn the basics of high pressures in hoses and cylinders, we are aware of the potential for serious injury to ourselves and those around us. If hoses fail, the results can be ear-shattering sounds, parts as projectiles, or an escaping gas stream that is strong enough to take out an eye. Without suitable restraints, hoses can whip around with sufficient force to amputate a limb.

    Complacency often takes over in most cases, as hoses are sturdy and designed to be handled frequently and subjected to all kinds of abuses. But the risks never diminish, only our perception of risks.

    The keys to hose safety are regular inspection, competent use, and replacement according to the manufacturer’s guidelines. Hose replacement is necessary with regular use and should occur more frequently with high usage or in humid areas where metals corrode easily.

    The DAN Risk Assessment Guide for Dive Operators and Dive Professionals, which is available as a free download on DAN.org, contains a series of recommendations to address these risks. This information relates to selecting materials and manufacture, hose installation and use, and inspection and maintenance.

    Please use the link below for the full DAN article.

    High-Pressure Hoses - Divers Alert Network (dan.org)


  • September 22, 2023 2:41 PM | Howard Ratsch (Administrator)

    This article represents the views of the author.  The article has not been fact checked by myself, the Board of Directors or any member of the USA Dive Club.

    Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.

    Down Drafts: 5 Life-Saving Tips

    By Jon Hardy 

    Case 1

    Ed.'s note: The incidents described here are real. Names of locations and people have been changed or deleted.

    The diving had been great — five days of easy drift diving on a Caribbean island known for its walls. Although Anne dived only on vacation once a year, she had her own gear and had been doing these dive trips for many years. She had never taken any advanced training or a scuba refresher, but she was comfortable diving. It was so easy to just drift and let the dive guides and boat crews deal with all the logistics, planning and details of the diving.

    Anne preferred the smaller boats with fewer divers, signing up for her dives directly with local dive operators after she arrived on island. For her last day of diving, she wanted to do something special, so she shopped around for an operator going to a dive site she hadn't been to. A small local operation was offering a trip to a remote reef known for its unique marine life and strong current.

    The trip out to the site was easy, although this boat was not as fast or as large as the others she had been on. It also did not carry oxygen or have a radio. The crew and dive guide spoke only limited English, but were friendly and helpful. Anne entered the water with the small group of divers and the guide after a limited briefing.

    She was never seen again.

    As it turned out, the edge of this reef had a significant downwelling. As the large mass of water, driven by the strong current, reached the edge of the reef, it plunged downward into the abyss.

    The dive boat returned to shore without Anne. Not knowing where she was staying, the operator decided to wait until someone asked about her, and therefore made no report that she was missing. Because Anne was single and lived alone, it wasn't until the next week, when she did not return to work, that her family started an investigation, which led from the airline to the hotel to the dive operator.

    The family's desire to bring a legal action against the dive operator turned out to be hopeless. The legal system of the country in which the accident happened allowed for little litigation, the few legal actions that were permitted had extremely low monetary limits, and the ability of American attorneys to function in the foreign court was extremely limited.

    Case 2

    One evening after dinner, a dive instructor's phone rang.

    "Hello, this is Fred," the instructor answered.

    Fred, this is Neal. You saved my life, man!"

    "Oh, really? How so?"

    Neal had taken a weeklong dive trip on a live-aboard in the Pacific. On many of the dives, a small tender from the live-aboard took divers to a site, dropped them off, then picked then up as they surfaced. On one trip, the divers were dropped off near an island with the admonition to stay close to shore. The offshore currents were not only strong, but vortexes were not uncommon in this area, causing the water to swirl in a downward flow, as in a whirlpool.

    Due to delays among the other divers, and the crew not being sure of their position, Neal was the last to enter the water. By the time he descended, he was not only no longer with the group, he was also not with his assigned buddy. He almost immediately realized that he was in a very strong current with no bottom in sight. Putting it all together — no group, no buddy, no bottom, strong current — Neal decided to abort the dive and started swimming for the surface. Within moments, he realized that not only was he not moving toward the surface, he was being pulled downward at an accelerating rate.

    Fear was rapidly turning to panic as he passed 100 feet, still kicking. Then the voice of his instructor, Fred, started playing inside his head — "If all hope is lost, get positively buoyant." Neal ditched his weights, pushed his power inflator button and continued to kick for the surface. After a few more agonizing moments, he paused at 135 feet, then started up, at first slowly, then faster and faster until he had to dump air from his BC to slow his ascent as he approached the surface.

    The crew later apologized for their mistake of dropping divers at the wrong place. Neal suffered no physical injury from his near-miss, but he became much more careful about putting his safety in the hands of others.

    Lessons For Life

    • Be aware of what dive guides and boat crews are doing.
    • Do not give the responsibility for your safety to others.
    • Be sure that any boat you dive from has a radio and carries oxygen.
    • Let someone else know your plans and be sure the dive operator takes emergency contact information.
    • If you're unable to deal with a problem under water, get positively buoyant and go to the surface. If possible, slow down or stop on the way up, but remember that it's far better to risk decompression illness and be on the surface breathing, than to be on the bottom not breathing.
  • August 21, 2023 9:18 AM | Howard Ratsch (Administrator)

    This article represents the views of the author.  The article has not been fact checked by myself, the Board of Directors or any member of the USA Dive Club.

    Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.

    A Buddy's Best Effort Fails

    By Jon Hardy 

    Setting the Stage

    Ed.'s note: The incidents described here are real. Names of locations and people have been changed or deleted.

    Joe and Mac went through the same open-water certification course and buddied for all of their post-certification dives. Shortly after, the dive store that offered their diving course and supplied their rental equipment sponsored a boat diving trip, with their instructor serving as divemaster and coordinator.

    On the first day of the trip, Joe and Mac dived with their instructor Fred on two wrecks in the 70- to 90-foot range. Both dived in a safe and conscientious manner. For the next dive day, Joe and Mac asked Fred to let them dive on their own, which he willingly agreed to.

    The next morning, Mac appeared to be congested and to have an upset stomach; he may have taken some non-prescription medication. The boat ride out to the dive site was smooth, the water clear and calm. Joe and Mac made their own plan to dive the wreck. Fred approved the plan and they were on their way with no sign of stress or difficulty.

    The Dive

    Joe and Mac descended with ease. At the base of the mooring, around 80 feet, they adjusted their buoyancy and swam the wreck, side by side. After a very short time, Mac stopped suddenly. Joe swam close to check Mac's condition. Mac reached for Joe's octopus, was handed it by Joe, and took two or three deep breaths. Joe then took hold of Mac and started swimming to the mooring line. As he did, the octopus fell from Mac's mouth and Joe replaced it. This happened twice. Joe now realized that Mac was in serious trouble, added air to his own BC and ascended, while holding onto Mac. They ascended quickly, but under control, not pausing for a safety stop. At the surface, Joe raised his hand and yelled. Immediately divers from one of the other dive boats helped pull Mac on board, began giving CPR, and then raced to shore. An ambulance transferred Mac to a hospital where he was pronounced dead from a combination of air embolism and drowning.

    Legal Action and Analysis

    Mac's family sued the dive store and the instructor. Their claims against the store and instructor included renting defective equipment, providing improper training, keeping poor records, diving beyond 60 feet and failing to provide direct supervision.

    During the discovery process and subsequent trial, some of the realities of recreational diving were clarified:

    • Dive equipment rarely causes diving accidents, and, in this case, no defect could be found that related to the actual events.
    • Although Fred was an instructor, he was not teaching at the time of the dives; his original training of these divers had been more than adequate; the divers had successfully made several dives without an instructor after their certification.
    • How well dive rosters and log books are completed does not cause diving accidents.
    • The dive industry's recommendations on such things as depth limits are just that — suggestions, not regulations.
    • Indirect supervision is the most common method used by dive professionals when supervising certified divers. Given this, there is nothing a dive professional can do to directly aid a diver in need.
    • Dive professionals do not have police powers to keep certified divers from diving. In fact, in this case, Joe and Mac were not only certified, but their experience exceeded the dives done in an Advanced Open Water course.
    • Joe's rescue efforts to help Mac were exactly what a dive professional would have done in the same situation.

    We will never know what actually happened to Mac, but it was clear some medical condition caused him respiratory distress and did not allow his airway to equalize on the way to the surface. There is nothing a rescuer can do to open another diver's airway while under water. If a diver is not breathing, the best course of action is to get to the surface with all deliberate speed. The dive store was dropped from the case, and the jury found in favor of the defendant instructor.

    Lessons for Life

    • Be fit for diving — free from illness and not medicated to cover up an underlying illness.
    • If you should ever throw up under water, do so through your regulator and then clear it or switch to your octopus for a clear airway.
  • July 22, 2023 9:54 AM | Howard Ratsch (Administrator)

    PADI Highlights 5 Safety Points in Response to Fatalities

    This article represents the views of the author.  The article has not been fact checked by myself, the Board of Directors or any member of the USA Dive Club.

    Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.

    Following several fatal incidents involving PADI professionals, the diver training organisation has issued a statement warning dive-centers and instructors of any agency against losing sight of safety standards and practices.

    “Diver safety is each and every diving professional’s first and most important priority, because when it’s lacking, preventable tragedies can occur,” says PADI Worldwide CEO and president Drew Richardson. “Dive incidents ripple well beyond the victims. They are deep, personal tragedies also impacting families, friends and the entire global diving community – regardless of the diving organisation individuals are associated with.

    “There is generally a reasonably low risk in diving when community, training-course and safe diving practices are followed but, when they are not, the severity of a potential accident will have serious consequences that could have been entirely avoidable,” says Richardson

    “While most diving professionals put safety first, recent incidents where fatalities have occurred were not simple slips or forgetful moments. These tragedies resulted directly or indirectly from violating course standards, abandoning sound judgment and ignoring or over-riding obvious and accepted dive-community practices.”

    For the remaining part of this article, please use the Divernet.com link below.

    PADI highlights 5 safety points in response to fatalities (divernet.com)

  • June 16, 2023 1:36 PM | Howard Ratsch (Administrator)

    Deploying a Safety Sausage

    By Barry & Ruth Guimbellot

    Deploying A Safety Sausage - Scuba Skills | Dive Training Magazine (dtmag.com)

    This article represents the views of the author.  The article has not been fact checked by myself, the Board of Directors or any member of the USA Dive Club.

    Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.

    ONE ESSENTIAL PIECE of accessory equipment every diver needs to carry is the “safety sausage” or surface marker buoy (SMB). This device may also be referred to as a DSMB (delayed or deployable surface marker buoy). The purpose of these buoys is to help you be located quickly and easily during and/or after a dive. Knowing how to deploy an inflatable buoy is important, so let’s get started.

    Safety Sausage Basics

    An SMB or safety sausage can be any type of buoyant object used to indicate a diver’s position — a ring buoy, a large round float or a diver down flag mounted on a float and pole, for instance. For the purposes of this article, the SMB we’re describing is a portable, inflatable tube ranging from 3 to 6 feet (1 to 2 m) feet in length. SMBs come in bright colors, enabling boat crews and fellow divers to locate your position. Common colors are orange, red, pink and yellow. In some locations, yellow is reserved for emergencies. If you intend to use a yellow buoy, let your boat crew and dive buddies know so they will not mistake it as an emergency signal. The SMB may or may not have an attached line and spool/reel.

    A DSMB must have an attached line and spool or reel to be used to mark a diver’s location underwater. In some instances, divers deploy and tow a DSMB throughout the dive. In other instances, the DSMB is deployed near the end of the dive, usually as the divers prepare to ascend to safety stop depth.

    A typical SMB consists of an inflatable tube outfitted with a valve used to inflate the tube by mouth or a valve that accepts a low-pressure inflator hose. Larger SMBs have dump valves to deflate the tube after use or to allow air to escape to avoid over-pressurization as the tube rises to the surface.

    BYOB. In this instance BYOB means, “Bring Your Own Buoy.” Every diver should equip with his or her own personal SMB when diving in the ocean or other large body of water — especially when diving from a boat. In the event that buddy teams become separated, each diver can inflate their own buoy and get seen — and reunited — sooner.

    An open-cell safety sausage tube opens at the bottom so it can be inflated with a second-stage regulator. With this type of tube, the opening must remain below the surface to avoid air from escaping, thus deflating the tube. When inflating this type of tube, be careful not to entangle the regulator in the opening.

    Most SMBs have reflective material on the tube, which is useful at night when using searchlights. For additional safety, some reflectors are visible to radar. Tubes also have a D-ring or similar connector to attach a line and spool/reel to the tube. The SMB typically has a strap to keep the tube rolled up when not in use. Some tubes also have a D-ring located on top to attach a strobe light or light stick. Some models come with an accessory pocket.

    When selecting a buoy, ask the pros at your local dive center for assistance. They can help you select the right buoy, line and spool/reel and other accessories such as clips and straps that will be suitable for the type of diving you intend to do.

    Using a Buoy

    Again, the main purpose of the SMB is to make you (or your position underwater) more visible to those on the surface. When live boating — diving from a boat that does not anchor — the SMB is especially useful if deployed while you are performing your safety stop or preparing to begin your ascent. By the time you surface, the boat can be nearby ready to assist you back onboard.

    When night diving from shore or a boat, shining a light up through the bottom of the SMB tube provides a glow that is easily seen by fellow divers. If the tube does not open on the end, hold your dive light near the side to light up the tube.

    The line attached to your DSMB can also be a handy reference for your safety stop. For example, tie knots in the line at about 15 and 20 feet below the bottom of the tube. When rewinding the line as you ascend, the knots in the line will indicate you are at safety stop depth. The reference mark is especially useful when in limited visibility or diving at night. (Always use your dive computer and/or depth gauge for accuracy.)

    The DSMB can also be used underwater to mark a spot on the reef, providing divers with a needed reference point. If diving from shore, the DSMB can designate the starting point to return to at the end of the dive. In either case, the tube will be partially inflated and the line unrolled a few feet/meters. The line and spool/reel will need to be anchored using a lead weight or tied off to a rock or other fixed, nonliving underwater feature.

    Tips for Deploying a Surface Marker Buoy

    You may find it easier to retrieve the SMB tube from your buoyancy compensator (BC) pocket or D-ring when at safety stop depth or deeper. By doing so, you will not have to contend with waves or surface current.

    First, get neutrally buoyant, look up and around you to assure it is safe to deploy the buoy. Next, unfurl the tube. Unclip the snap or other connector holding the line in place on your spool/reel. Once the line is free to unroll, reconnect the snap to the line where the clip moves freely. Hold the line/spool out in front of you to avoid entanglement. Take a breath of air from your regulator and with your right hand remove the regulator, push open the valve and then blow air through the valve into the tube with your mouth to partially inflate the buoy. Do not attempt to fully inflate the tube at depth. (Remember, the air inside the tube will expand as the tube ascends.) One large breath is usually enough.

    An SMB with a tube that’s open on the bottom can be inflated by adding air from the second-stage regulator (or octopus regulator) into the tube. Simply invert the regulator beneath the open tube and depress the regulator purge button briefly.

    After rechecking your buoyancy and position, place the line/spool between the thumb and index finger. Be careful not to place your finger inside the center opening in the spool. As the tube is released, keep tension on the line so the tube remains upright.

    As you ascend, continue to keep tension on the line. Hold the line in one hand and hold the spool on its side with the other hand. Using a circular wrist motion, roll the slack line onto the spool. Do not attempt to spin the spool to wind the line. Keep tension on the line and wind the spool until all the line is secured as you reach the surface. Use the snap to secure the line and prevent it from unrolling.

    Check the area to make sure you’re not in the path of boat traffic, then fully inflate your BC and keep a regulator or snorkel in your mouth. At this time, you can clip the spool to your BC. Continue to hold the inflated buoy until the boat arrives or until you complete your swim to shore.

    A safety sausage should be considered an essential accessory item to have with you on every dive. This small piece of gear plays a large role in keeping you safe while enjoying your favorite sport.


  • May 21, 2023 11:17 AM | Howard Ratsch (Administrator)

    Can We Create A Safety Culture In Diving? Probably Not, Here’s Why.

    by Gareth Lock

    This article represents the views of the author.  The article has not been fact checked by myself, the Board of Directors or any member of the USA Dive Club.

    Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.

    How do we improve our safety culture in diving? Is it indeed something that we as a community of divers can affect? Human factors coach Gareth Lock argues that there is no magic bullet and, in fact, that the sports diving industry needs to make a fundamental shift in how it manages diver safety, if we are to improve safety. In other words, we still have a ways to go. The retired British Royal Air Force officer explains why.

    Use the link below for the complete GUE article

    Can We Create A Safety Culture In Diving? Probably Not, Here’s Why. - InDepth (gue.com)


  • April 22, 2023 10:06 AM | Howard Ratsch (Administrator)

    Educational Blog

    This article represents the views of the author.  The article has not been fact checked by myself, the Board of Directors or any member of the USA Dive Club.

    Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.

    Hal Watts: Plan Your Dive

    Known for his deep air diving exploits back in the day, 86-year-old Hal Watts, aka “Mr. Scuba,” is one of the pioneers of early scuba and credited with coining the motto, “Plan Your Dive. Dive Your Plan.” He founded the Professional Scuba Instructors Association International (PSAI) in 1962, which eventually embraced tech diving, but never relinquished its deep air “Narcosis Management” training. Italian explorer and instructor Andrea Murdock Alpini caught up with Watts and teased out a few stories from the training graybeard.

    Please use this GUE link below for the full article.   Interview by Andrea Murdock Alpini   

    Hal Watts: Plan Your Dive - InDepth (gue.com)

<< First  < Prev   1   2   3   4   5   ...   Next >  Last >> 

© Copyright Under Sea Adventurers Dive Club 2024

Powered by Wild Apricot Membership Software